Adult sex community
Many persons convicted of sexual assault felonies are sentenced to probation.
The distinctive characteristics of sex offenders and the unique trauma they inflict require use of more than routine, one-size-fits-all methods of supervision.
A containment approach requires the integration of a collection of attitudes, expectations, laws, policies, procedures, and practices that have clearly been designed to work together.
This approach is implemented through interagency and interdisciplinary teamwork.
Protection and recovery of the victim and the well-being of the community are concerns that guide policy development, program implementation, and actions of professionals working with sexual assault victims and perpetrators.
In this approach to sex offender management, the client is the community.
The number of adults convicted annually of rape, child molestation, or other forms of sexual assault and sentenced to State prisons more than doubled between 1980 (8,000) and 1992 (19,100, almost 5 percent of all State prison admissions that year). State prisons held 20,500 sex offenders in 1980, 75,900 in 1992, 81,100 in 1993, and 88,100 in 1994. The majority will return to the community, many under supervision by parole officers.Under this philosophy, treatment and supervision modalities give priority to community protection and victim safety.Orders for no contact with the victim are sought at the earliest opportunity.Not all sex offenders share all the following characteristics, and the absence of a particular characteristic does not mean the individual is not a sex offender. Sex offenders have secretive and manipulative lifestyles, and many of their sexual assaults are so well planned that they appear to occur without forethought. The skills used to manipulate victims have also been employed to manipulate criminal justice officials. o Many sex offenders are otherwise highly functioning people who use their social skills to commit their crimes. o Sex offenders typically have developed complicated and persistent psychological and social systems constructed to assist them in denying and minimizing the harm they inflict on others, and often they are very accomplished at presenting to others a facade designed to hide the truth about themselves. o Many sex offenders commit a wide range and large number of sexually deviant acts during their lives and show a continued propensity to reoffend. In a study of 561 compulsive adult subjects, rapists reported a lifetime average of 7 incidents and exhibitionists more than 500.In this sample of 561 voluntary subjects, about 54 percent reported having at least two paraphilias; 20 percent participated in deviant behavior without regard to victim gender; and 23.3 percent reported offending against both family and nonfamily victims. Knowledge of the actual dynamics of sex offending is not widespread, but the public's awareness of sex offenders is increasing and is often manifested as outrage at particularly heinous sexual assaults, especially those committed by offenders under community supervision.How can sex offenders be managed in community settings in ways that enhance public safety and victim protection?Key findings: The survey and field research yielded the following results and suggestions: o The most commonly reported special conditions for sex offenders on probation or parole were court- or officer-ordered treatment requirements and no-contact-with-victim provisions.Key issues: In 1994, State prisons held 88,100 sex offenders compared to 20,500 in 1980.Most will return to the community, many supervised by parole officers.o Probation and parole agencies with specialized caseloads were more likely to report use of such community-safety approaches as emphasis on after-hours monitoring of offenders and an orientation focusing on victim protection.o More than 80 percent of probation and parole respondents stated that mental health treatment is mandated for sex offenders under community supervision.